Analysis of the hottest color and color management

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Color and color management terminology analysis

achromatic color achromatic color: color with zero chromaticity, that is, gray at all levels between black, white and black and white

black body blackbody: also known as a complete radiator, it neither reflects nor transmits, but an imaginary object that can absorb all the radiation falling on it and fully comply with Planck's radiation law under the action of radiation

blackbody radiator blackbody radiation: also known as plankian radiation. The spectral energy distribution of blackbody radiation will change with temperature; With the increase of temperature, the peak wavelength changes with the colors of red, Cheng, yellow, green and blue

brightness: distinguish the degree of color brightness

calibration: the process of ensuring that all color production devices (scanners, displays, printers) conform to the specifications or standard states of manufacturers, users or industry when they are built

characterization Characteristic Description: the process of determining the system output in response to known inputs. The characteristic description provides a method to obtain the full color gamut of the device and copy the characteristics

chromatic adaptation: the phenomenon that the human eye changes its visual sensing ability with the chromaticity and brightness of the environment

Chromaticity diagram: a figure that represents chromaticity coordinates on a plane

chromaticity chroma: a measure that describes the visual induction intensity of the color of the naked eye

chroma chroma chroma: C for short, to distinguish the degree of bright colors

cie (Commission International de ieclairage) International Lighting Committee: an international institution that studies and promotes relevant light source and color standards

cie l*a*b* three dimensional color space of the International Commission on illumination: a mathematical color module based on human visual spectral sensitivity to light, with l* = brightness, a* = red green axis of space, and b* = blue yellow axis of space

CMM color matching module: a color conversion calculation method that accepts color data and converts it into another color space reference data map

cms color management system: short for color management system. Color expertise and science are written into software in an attempt to simplify color reproduction and automate color adjustment, so that users can easily, accurately and quickly complete color reproduction

color (order) system: a method of representing color space or position by data, coordinates, three-dimensional space or other means, such as Munsell system, Pantone system, lab, Lxy

color appearance model color appearance module: describes the chromaticity change of human vision in mathematical mode

color constancy: no matter how the conditions of the light source change, the visual perception of the color of objects always wants to maintain a certain unchanged phenomenon

color difference: the relative uncertainty U1 introduced in (1) lever levelness; The color difference value △ eab* in CIE l*a*b* color space, and the color difference value △ euv* in CIE luv color space

color gamut: the range of chromaticity space that color devices can display

color matching color matching: adjust the chroma intensity between different devices and objects, so that the human eye has the same perceptual result

color mixing system: a system that mixes colors into thousands of colors, usually additive and subtractive

color perception: the visual perception of color by the naked eye can generally be divided into two categories. The first category is colorless, which includes white, gray and black; The second category is color, which includes solid color and other general colors

Color quality assessment: a method to measure the quality of a color image based on human visual characteristics

color rendering index chromaticity: the degree to which the light source presents the color of the object, which is also the degree of color fidelity

color space color space: a device that defines chromaticity and chromaticity mathematically, which is as important as the color range of three-dimensional space, and can print tables or displays

Color spectrum meter: a color measurement system, which can measure the spectral distribution value and chromaticity of objects in the visible light range

color temperature: indicates the spectral characteristics of the light source. When the spectral distribution of a light source is the same as the blackbody radiation, the absolute temperature corresponding to the blackbody radiation at this time is called the color temperature of the light source

colorimeter colorimeter: used as a trichromatic measuring device for reflecting or transmitting light from the surface of an object, which is similar to the human eye to convert the reflected or transmitted light into a mathematical mode. The colorimeter is used to calibrate the characteristic description of the display and the printer

colorimetric values: three values representing the three stimulus values of color stimulus characteristics

complementary color: when two colors are mixed in equal quantities in the additive method, they produce white light, or when two colors are mixed in equal quantities in the subtractive method, they produce black, which can be called complementary colors

cone cone cells: located in the human eyeball, cone cells can be divided into red cone cells, green cone cells and blue cone cells; The theory of three primary colors of color and its evolution. It only works when it is relatively bright (more than several NITS), which is suitable for low light level vision. It has the characteristics of low sensitivity, high resolution and color resolution

conversion conversion: transform color images from the color space of one device to another, also known as color conversion

correlated color temperature: if the spectral distribution of a light source is different from that of blackbody radiation, but its color characteristics are close to that of blackbody radiation at a certain temperature, the color temperature is the relative color temperature

delta-e △ e: table the distance between CIE l*a*b* color spaces of two colors, which is used to represent the total color difference and establish quantitative color tolerance. Usually, △ e is calculated in a visually uniform chromaticity space

Densitometer: a device for measuring the amount of black-and-white or four-color light reflected or transmitted by the surface of an object. The reflection densitometer is used to read the concentration of four-color ink on the printing machine, and can also calculate other values such as dot gain, overprint and chromaticity error. The transmission densitometer is used to read the concentration of color separations, black-and-white or color films

diffuser: the diffuser can almost uniformly reflect the incident light to all angles

dot gain point increase: the percentage of actual increase (or hue value) within the whole hue range or a specific halftone point percentage. For example, an increase of 20% points will cause 70% points to appear in 50% of the intermediate points, and the tone of the replica will be significantly different from that of the original

Error diffusion: a technique commonly used in image processing, especially in color image processing. It is a corresponding processing method that spreads the high-frequency signal to the surrounding points

favorite color: human preference for object color performance, such as bluer blue sky, greener grass, higher tone contrast, etc

fluorescence: special light with a longer wavelength is emitted by the excitation of a shorter wavelength light source

gamma curve hue curve: the corresponding function curve between the input value and output value of devices such as screens

gcr (gray component replacement): this technology can strengthen the detailed part of the black version and make the shadow contrast greater. The method of forming the black version of GCR is the technology of replacing the gray part generated by the CYM three colors with black ink

hsb: indicates the color pattern formed by hue, saturation and brightness

hsl: indicates the color pattern formed by hue, saturation and lightness

hue hue: abbreviated as H is the characteristic that the main wavelengths of colors are distinguished from each other

icc (International Color Consortium): International Committee for the development of color data standards

illuminance illuminance: the degree to which the light source illuminates the object

just perceptible difference: the color difference value that human vision can no longer distinguish

kell factor Kell parameter: calculate the vertical scan line quality parameter of the display playback screen. Generally speaking, the value of the secondary parameter is 0.7

linearization linearization: the output device is adjusted to transmit the special calibration of the linear relationship between the input and output. For example, the halftone point value output by the image output machine after linearization is within a certain tolerance range of its input

luminance adaptation: when the light intensity of the illumination light changes, the visual function of the human eye will automatically adapt and adjust, and the information can still be obtained normally

luminance brightness: the intensity of light emitted by the illuminant

luminous body: an object that can emit light by itself, such as the sun, fluorescent lamp, flame, electric lamp, etc

luminous intensity: intensity of light source (I), i=d Φ/dw。

metamerism metamerism: objects with the same three stimulus values and different spectral distributions

munsell color system

neutral color: neutral gray without color

non luminous body dark body: an object that cannot emit light by itself and can produce luster only by receiving the light of the luminescent body

opacity opaque body: an object with zero light penetration

photopic vision bright vision: under bright conditions, only cones work. This visual state is called bright vision

preference color: similar to favorite color; However, special emphasis is placed on the special preferences of some ethnic groups and individuals

profile or ICC dynamometer is attached to the movable 10 prefix driven by electric motor or hydraulic device. Profile data map or international color Federation data map: developed by the international color Federation and published in 1995, data map is a standard file format that transmits and measures the color output of a system or device in response to known input, Its data describes a device, such as the application and operating system that supports this format

quartz halogen lamp: the most commonly used light source for color measurement, such as colorimeter and spectrometer, is continuous spectral light source and high color rendering light source

rod body cells: located in the human eyeball, they only function in relatively dark conditions (brightness is about 0.01nits or less), suitable for low light level vision. They have the characteristics of high sensitivity, low resolution and no color resolution, and their sensitivity range is 400~600nm

saturation saturation: only the purity of color, the more the spectrum penetrates into other light components, the more unsaturated it is

scotopic vision dark vision: under dark conditions, only culms work. This visual state is called dark vision

sensitivity: the brightness you feel when you see light

spectral distribution establish a long-term cooperative relationship with customers spectral distribution: the fraction of the energy emitted by the light source to each spectral range in the total energy

Spectrophotometer: a device that measures the amount of reflected or transmitted light at fixed intervals throughout the visible spectrum. Spectrophotometer data can be used to calculate concentration and chromaticity variables

spectrum spectrum: if the emitted light is described by three main light waves: red, green and blue, when these three main light waves with different proportions are combined, a complete spectrum containing all colors will be generated

spetral tristimulus values spectral tristimulus values: tristimulus values, tristimulus values (x, y, z) are the three basic values of CIE color system, which are determined by

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